Shenyang Getai Hydropower Equipment Co., Ltd.

How Kaplan Turbines Work

Apr. 25, 2021


The Kaplan Turbine was the first turbine developed from the Francis Turbine. His invention can be used to efficiently generate electricity in hydroelectric power plants with extremely low head heights, but Francis turbines cannot achieve extremely low head heights. Its design nozzle height range is 10-70 meters, and the output power is 5 to 200 MW. The diameter of the driving wheel is between 2 and 11 meters. The speed range is from 79 to 429 rpm. The theoretical head height of the Kaplan turbine and its associated generator is 34.65 meters. This is the Kaplan turbine with a diameter of 4.8 meters in the Tacoma Power Plant in Venezuela in 2013. The power is 235MW. Kaplan turbines are now widely used in high-flow, low-lift hydroelectric power plants. So, what are the main principles of Kaplan turbines? The following Chinese hydroelectric generator suppliers will tell you.


Kaplan Turbine

Kaplan Turbine


The Kaplan Turbine is one of the internal counterattack turbines, which means that after the working fluid flows into the turbine, the fluid pressure changes and energy is lost. Energy is obtained from the kinetic energy of the water head and current. This turbine design combines the functions of radial and axial turbines. The fluid inlet is a scroll-shaped duct surrounding the turbine guide vanes. When the fluid flows into the turbine, it flows tangentially to the blades and spirals, and passes through the propeller wheel to rotate. The fluid outlet is a special-shaped draft tube; it helps to slow down the fluid flow and restore kinetic energy.


The location of the Kaplan Turbine does not have to be at the lowest point of the water flow, but only to keep the drain pipe full. However, a high installation position may cause the turbine blades to be sucked into the draft tube, and the resulting pressure drop may cause cavitation.


Variable side width] and turbine blades allow the turbine operator to perform a variety of effective controls on various water flow conditions. Kaplan turbines usually operate at over 90% efficiency, but can only be used at extremely low nose heights.


Current research areas include improving computational fluid dynamics drive efficiency and new designs, as well as improving the survival rate of fish through turbines. Since the earlier Kaplan designed the Kaplan turbine, the rotation of its propeller blades must rely on the high-pressure hydraulic oil on the bearings to keep it stable, and the high-pressure wave pressure oil must be kept in an extremely sealed state to prevent the rear of the engine from running. Water flowing into the river is undesirable because it will not only waste resources, but also cause serious environmental pollution.


The above is about the working principle of Kaplan Turbine, I hope it will be helpful to everyone. We also have Pelton Turbines, they will definitely meet your needs, please feel free to contact us if necessary.


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