Nozzles of Pelton Turbine are direct forceful, high-speed flows of water against a series of spoon-shaped buckets, also known as impulse blades, that can be mounted around the outer rim of a drive wheel--also referred to as a runner .Since the water jet hits the blades, the direction of water velocity has been changed to follow the contours of the blades. The impulse energy of the water jet exerts torque on the bucket-and-wheel system, turning the wheel; the water jet does a"u-turn" and leaves at the outer sides of the bucket, decelerated to a very low speed. In the procedure, the water jet momentum is transferred to the wheel and hence to a turbine. Maximum efficiency and power are achieved while the speed of the water jet reaches twice the speed of the rotating buckets. A tiny percentage of the water jet's authentic kinetic energy will remain in the water, which causes the bucket to be emptied at the same speed it's filled, (see conservation of mass) and thereby permits the high-pressure input flow to continue uninterrupted and without waste of electricity. Typically two buckets are mounted side-by-side on the wheel, together with the water jet split into two equal flows; this balances the side-load drives on the wheel also helps to ensure smooth, efficient transfer of momentum out of the water jet into the turbine wheel.
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