Francis turbine is simple in structure, and the main components include the volute, the seat ring, the water guiding mechanism, the top cover, the runner, the main shaft, the guide bearing (see the turbine guide bearing), the bottom ring, the draft tube, etc. Indicates the flow direction of the water. The volute is a water-inducing component, which is shaped like a snail shell and is generally made of a metal material with a circular cross section. The seat ring is placed between the volute and the guide vane, and is composed of an upper ring, a lower ring and a plurality of columns, and is directly connected with the volute; the column is wing-shaped and cannot be rotated, and is also called a fixed guide vane.
The water guiding mechanism is composed of a movable guide vane, a speed regulating ring, a crank arm, a connecting rod and the like. The runner is directly connected to the main shaft (see the turbine main shaft) and is a rotating part of the turbine. The runner consists of an upper crown, a lower ring, a drain cone and a number of fixed blades. The shape and the fit of each component are based on The head used varies. The draft tube is a turbine draining part that directs the flow of water from the outlet of the runner to the downstream, generally elbow-shaped, and the straight-shaped draft tube is commonly used in small turbines.
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