Francis turbine is a type of counter-turbine, invented by American engineer Francis in 1849. The water flows into the runner from the periphery and then flows axially out of the runner. The runner consists of the upper crown, the lower ring and the blades. The development trend in recent years is high head, large capacity, high specific speed, and high efficiency.
Francis turbine has compact structure, high efficiency, and can adapt to a wide range of water heads. It is one of the types of turbines widely used in the world. When the water passes through this type of turbine runner, it enters in a radial direction and flows out axially, so it is also called a radial-direction axial turbine.
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