Shenyang Getai Hydropower Equipment Co., Ltd.

Kaplan Turbine Operating Principle

Nov. 14, 2019

The Kaplan Turbine is a rotary propeller type turbine with variable vanes. Developed by Austrian professor Victor Kaplan in 1913, he combines automatically adjustable propeller blades with automatically adjustable vanes to achieve high productivity in large drop flow and large head height differences.


Kaplan Turbine


Kaplan Turbine


The Kaplan turbine was the first to evolve from a Francis turbine. His invention can be used to efficiently generate electricity in hydroelectric power plants with extremely low head heights, yet extremely low head heights are not possible with Francis turbines. It has a design head height range of 10-70 meters and an output from 5 to 200 megawatts. The diameter of the moving wheel is between 2 and 11 meters. The speed range is from 79 to 429 rpm. The Kaplan turbine and its associated generator have a theoretical head height of 34.65 meters, which is the Kaplan turbine with a diameter of 4.8 meters in the Tacoma power plant in Venezuela in 2013. It is 235MW. Kaplan turbines are now widely used in high-flow, low-head hydroelectric plants. So what is the main principle of the Kaplan turbine? The following Hydraulic Turbine Generator China suppliers will come to tell you.


The Kaplan turbine is one of the internal counter-attack turbines, which means that after the working fluid flows into the turbine, the fluid pressure changes and the energy is lost. Energy is obtained from both the head and the kinetic energy of the water flow. This turbine design combines the functions of radial and axial turbines. The fluid inlet is a scroll-shaped conduit that surrounds the turbine guide vanes. When the fluid flows into the turbine, it flows in a tangential direction to the vanes and spirals and passes through the propeller-type moving wheels to rotate it. The fluid outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps slow fluid flow and recover kinetic energy.


The location of the Kaplan turbine is not required to be at the lowest point of the water flow, but only the drain tube needs to be kept full. However, a higher installation location may result in a situation in which the turbine blades are drawn in by the draft tube, and the resulting pressure drop may cause cavitation.


The variable side door and turbine blades allow the turbine operator to perform a variety of different effective controls for various water flow conditions. Kaplan turbines typically operate at more than 90% efficiency, but may only be used at very low head heights.


Current research areas include improvements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) drive efficiency and new designs, as well as improved survival when fish pass through turbines. Because earlier Kaplan designed the Kaplan turbine, its propeller blade rotation must rely on the high-pressure hydraulic oil on the bearing to keep it smooth, and the high-pressure hydraulic oil must be kept in an extremely sealed state to prevent the tail after running. Water flows into the river, and such a situation is undesirable, because it will not only cause waste of resources, but also cause serious environmental pollution.


The above is about the operating principle of Kaplan Turbine, I hope to help everyone. If you are interested in Francis turbines, you can contact us, and we also have Pelton Turbines and Francis Turbine, which will surely meet your needs. Welcome to buy.

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